In a number of developing countries, sustainable development principles have been introduced within existing national frameworks, such as conservation strategies, environmental plans, national vision declarations and agenda 21 national initiatives (UN, 2002a). Other mechanisms for implementing the Agenda 21 goals include the Programme for Further Implementation of Action 21 (1997), the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (also known as the International Development Goals in 2000) and the Johannesburg Implementation Plan (2002). The Millennium Development Goals are a compiled version of the agenda items set out at international conferences and summits in the 1990s, including Rio`s Agenda 21. These goals were set at the United Nations Millennium Conference in New York to boost efforts to meet the needs of the world`s poorest people. The Millennium Development Goals provide a common framework for measuring development progress and encourage those involved in the UN system to cooperate in a coherent manner. The targets are grouped into eight categories and contain several quantitative indicators to be achieved by the 2015 target date. Goals include (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) to achieve general primary education; (3) promoting gender equality and strengthening the role of women; (4) reduction in child mortality; (5) improved maternal health; fighting HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) Ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) to develop a global partnership for development. In 1998, the Commission on Sustainable Development introduced stakeholders to its annual meetings. The two-day dialogue, which is an integral part of the meeting, brings together representatives from the business community, trade unions, local authorities, the scientific community and NGOs for an exchange of views with governments. On the Commission`s agenda, a theme is chosen for the annual dialogue and each interest group prepares a discussion paper for the dialogue as the basis for the discussions. Dialogues with several stakeholders are also planned for the World Summit for Sustainable Development and preparatory meetings. Agenda 21 also explicitly acknowledges, in chapter 27, the role of NGOs in the implementation of Agenda: 124.
In recent years, numerous legal and voluntary agreements have been drawn up on marine and land sources of marine pollution. However, problems remain with regard to the implementation of these agreements and the resolution of new problems. In many developing countries, the capacity of maritime administrations remains insufficient to effectively implement international instruments. The obvious differences among planners, all of whom claim to want more sustainable cities, are insensitive to issues of urban form and transport.